Unit – III: Gastrulation and Neuralation (15 Hrs.)

a. Gastrulation and formation of germ layers in sea urchin, frog, birds, reptiles and


B.Molecular mechanism of left –right axis formation- in amphibian ,mammal and reptile

c. Neurulation-body segmentation, Hox gene control development

Unit – IV: Morphogenesis and organogenesis in animals (15 Hrs.)

a. Cell aggregation and differentiation in Dictyostelium- Life cycle of dictyostelium, cell-cell

signaling, cell adhesion molecules in Dictyostelium

b. Axes and pattern formation in Drosophila-Development of fruit fly , maternal effect gene,

c. Organogenesis – vulva formation in Caenorhabditis elegans-cell-cell interactions and

chance in the determination of cell types

d. Eye lens induction- Cascades of induction –reciprocal and sequential inductive events