Genetic Engineering is concerned with deliberate manipulation of the genetic material (DNA) of a living organism by artificial methods. The study of genetic engineering involves insertion of new genetic material at an unspecified location in the host genome by isolating and copying the genetic material of interest using molecular cloning methods to generate a DNA sequence containing the required genetic elements for expression, and then inserting this construct into the host organism. Other methods consist of gene targeting and knocking out exact genes via engineered nucleases such as zinc finger nucleases or engineered homing endonucleases. The field of genetic engineering studies how traits and characteristics of an organism are transmitted through the generations, and how genetic disorders are caused. Genetic Engineering is also concerned with developing hybrid varieties of plants, making plants disease resistant. Genetic engineering techniques are used in research, biotechnology, and medicine.