Unit - III: Ageing (15 Hrs.)

1. Mechanism of ageing (Theories of ageing)

2. Cellular changes during ageing

3. Molecular changes during ageing

4. Immunological changes during ageing

5. Accumulation of toxins and chemical garbage, formation of lipofuschin granules

6. Ageing and cell cycle

7. Strategies against ageing

Unit - IV: Effects of inhibitors (15 Hrs.)

1. DNA synthesis (Mitomycin)

2. RNA synthesis (Actinomycin and Rafampicin).

3. Protein synthesis (Cyclohexamide, Tetracyclins, Chloramphenicol,


4. Mitochondrial metabolism (CN, CO, Actinomycin –A, Azide etc.)