Thermal stresses: Effect of high and low temperatures on plant metabolism, Mechanisms of
high and low temperatures tolerance, Cold hardening, Role of HSP. 

Radiation stress: Influence of high light intensity on photosynthesis, Photoprotection
mechanisms, Effect of UV radiations on plants, Mechanism of UV tolerance.

Oxidative stress: Generation of reactive oxygen species, Effect of ROS on metabolism,
ROX detoxification mechanisms in plants, Transgenic approaches