Population Ecology: Population regulation, Density dependent and Independent regulation:
Role of different factors, Genecology-Ecads, Ecotypes, concept of niche etc. Human population
dynamics and prediction. [15]

Statistical thinking in Ecology:
Ecosystems and scale, theory, knowledge and research design, Ecological study unit, Inference
methods, Experimental versus observation methods in ecology, Evidence and hypothesis testing,
formulating right problem, Publish or Perish. [15]


1. Study of litter production.
2. Determination of similarity index and association index.
3. Study of stratification and physiognomy.
4. Study of population dynamics.
5. Determination of IVI.
6. Study of α, β diversity.

1. Study of vegetation by transect method.
2. Study of vegetation bisects.
3. Measurement of biomass production.
4-5. Biomass profile of the plant community.
6. Visit to local protected or conserved area.

Reference Books:
Abe, T., Levin, S. A. and Higashi, M. (1997) (ed.): Biodiversity an Ecological Perspective.
Springer Verlag.
Bradbury I.K.1990): The Biosphere.
Brij Gopal and Bhardwaj, N. (1979): Elements of Ecology. Sahibabad: Vikas Publishing
House PVT. Ltd.
Galston, K. J. (1996): Biodiversity: A biology of numbers and differences. Kluwer
Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.
Greig Smith P. (1983):Quantitative Plant Ecology. Publisher: WILEYBLACKWELL
Hamson, H. C. and Churchill, E. D. (1961): The Plant Community. Rein
hold publishing corporation, New York.
Hashimoto Y et al (1990) : Measurement techniques in plant sciences. San Diego, Calif. :
Academic Press.
Kormondy E. J. (1996) (4th ed.): Concept of ecology. Publisher: Benjamin Cummings.
Krattiger, A. I. et al (1994): Widening Perspectives on Biodiversity. Kluwer
Krebs C. J. (1978) : Ecology. Harper & Row., New York.
Misra K. C. (1989) : Manual of plant ecology. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi.
Nair, P. K. G. (1990): Principles of Environmental Biology. Himalaya Publishing House
Odum E. P. (3rd ed. 1996) : Fundamentals of Ecology. Natraj Publishers, Dehra Dun.
Pandeya S. C., Puri, G. S. and Singh, J. S. (1968) : Research methods in plant ecology. Asia
Publishing House.
Shukla, R. S. and Chandel, P. S. (1983): Plant Ecology. Oxford and IBH.publishers, New
Delhi, India.
Walter, H. (1979); Vegetation of the Earth and Ecological Systems of Geobiosphere. Springer,
New York.
Weaver, J. E. and Clements, F. S. (1938): Plant Ecology. Springer, New York.
Willis, A. J. (1973): Introduction to Plant Ecology. Willis A J. Publisher.
Yadav, P. S. and Singh, J. S. (1997): Progress in Ecology vol. II. Today & Tomorrow's Printers
& Publishers, New Delhi.