CC 202: Molecular Biology

 UNIT-I  Genome organization

 Organization of bacterial genome, Structure of eucaryotic chromosomes; role of nuclear matrix in chromosome organization and function, matrix binding proteins, heterochromatin and euchromatin, molecular components, DNA reassociation kinetics (Cot curve analysis), repetitive and unique sequences, kinetics and sequence complexities, satellite DNA, DNA melting and buoyant density, packing and organization of chromatin, nucleosome phasing, DNase I hypersensitive regions, DNA methylation & Imprinting Mutation Nonsense, missense and point mutations, intragenic and intergenic suppression, frameshift mutations, physical, chemical and biological mutagens.

UNIT-II  DNA Replication, Repair & Recombination

 Concepts of replication initiation, elongation and termination in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, enzymes and accessory proteins involved in DNA replication, Fidelity in replication, replication of single stranded circular DNA. Gene stability and DNA repair, DNA repair enzymes, photoreactivation, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch correction, SOS repair. Recombination: homologous and non-homologous recombination, site specific recombination, Holliday structure, resolution, chi sequences in prokaryotes, gene targeting, gene disruption, FLP/FRT and Cre/Lox recombination RecA and other recombinases.

UNIT-III  Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Transcription

Prokaryotic Transcription & Regulation: Promoters, Regulatory elements, Transcription unit, constitutive and inducible promoter, operators, Initiation, Attenuation, Termination, Rho-dependent and independent termination, Anti-termination, Transcriptional regulation, positive and negative regulation, operon concept, Regulation of transcription 14 of lac, trp, ara, his, and gal operons, transcriptional control in lambda phage, Transcript processing, Processing of tRNA and rRNA Eucaryotic transcription and regulation: RNA polymerase structure and assembly, RNA polymerase I, II, III, Eukaryotic promoters and enhancers, General Transcription factors, TATA binding proteins (TBP) and TBP associated factors (TAF), Activators and repressors, transcription initiation, elongation and termination, activation and repression, Transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene silencing, expression and processing of heterogeneous nuclear RNA, tRNA, rRNA, 5'-Cap formation,3'-end processing and polyadenylation, Splicing, RNA editing, Nuclear export of mRNA, mRNA stability, catalytic RNA.

UNIT-IV  Translation & Transport

The translation machinery, ribosomes, composition and assembly, Universal genetic code, degeneracy of codons, termination codons, isoaccepting tRNA, wobble hypothesis. Mechanism of initiation, elongation and termination, Co- and post-translational modifications, genetic code in mitochondria. Protein synthesis, Transport of proteins and molecular chaperones, protein stability, protein turnover and degradation